Exploring satisfaction of choice and captive bus riders: An impact asymmetry analysis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, mode - bus, ridership - perceptions


Bus, rider satisfaction


The literature offers ample evidence on the associations between transit attributes and rider satisfaction. However, their asymmetric relationships are often overlooked. Few studies emphasize the attributes critical to choice and captive riders in developing countries. This study employs an impact asymmetry analysis to explore the correlates of bus satisfaction of choice and captive riders in Harbin, China. Most service attributes have asymmetric associations with overall satisfaction of both choice and captive riders. The waiting area, driver’s operating behavior, complaint handling, and stop announcement are critical to overall satisfaction of both choice and captive riders. However, planners should know that, because of the asymmetricity, planning goals differ when trying to satisfy choice and captive riders. Furthermore, they should emphasize convenience and comfort to satisfy captive riders and focus on bus availability to incentivize choice riders. Future studies should consider the non-linear associations and investigate the varying needs of different population groups.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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