Spatial and temporal analysis of bike-sharing use in Cologne taking into account a public transit disruption

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, place - urban, mode - bike, mode - tram/light rail, planning - integration, planning - methods


Bike sharing, Public transport disruption, Negative binomial regression, Spatiotemporal analysis


This research analyzes the relationship between bike-sharing and public transit using bike-sharing data collected in Cologne, Germany. The selected system is one of very few in Germany that is organized as a free-floating system, which allows the generation of more detailed data. A construction site in the light rail network causing multiple disruptions in the public transit network offered the possibility to detect changes in bike-sharing usage that occur in the corresponding period. Applying negative binomial regression, spatial and temporal usage patterns are analyzed to identify connections to the public transit network and other factors influencing the usage of bike sharing. The analysis suggests the existence of a spatial relationship between bike-sharing and public transit. Therefore, an intermodal use of both means of transport can be assumed. The short-term changes in the public transit network caused by the construction site only have minor impacts on the usage patterns. Other factors that affect the usage structures could be identified. Proximity to universities as well as the number of certain points of interest nearby, such as food outlets and shops, promote bike-sharing use. Higher temperatures are also positively correlated, while rain reduces usage. The findings of the study can be beneficial to integrate bike-sharing into urban transport systems, especially regarding public transit.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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