The role of objective and perceived built environments in affecting dockless bike-sharing as a feeder mode choice of metro commuting

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bike, mode - subway/metro, mode - bus, ridership - commuting, ridership - perceptions, ridership - mode choice, land use - impacts, planning - integration


Bike-sharing, Feeder mode, Path analysis, Perception, Built environment, Commute


The rapid growth of dockless bike-sharing (DBS) systems has attracted increased academic attention in the solutions to first- and last-mile problems. However, only a few studies have examined how the synergy between DBS and metro transit is affected by objective and perceived measures of built environment collectively. This study intends to fill this research gap by focusing on the effects of objective and perceived measures of built environment on DBS–metro integrated use for commuting trips. Results reveal that low agreement between the two measures of built environment and that the perceived measure is more likely to be directly associated with DBS–metro integration than the objective measure. Different built environment attributes may affect DBS–metro integration by unique paths. Moreover, individual characteristics (i.e., gender, age, and income) and location factor moderate the association between the built environment and DBS–metro integration. Particularly, built environment attributes related to transportation service are easier to be moderated than land use and cycling condition attributes. We conclude that the understanding of and interventions for the built environment as objectively measured are necessary but not sufficient for DBS–metro integration. Promoting the perception of the built environment among different population groups is also important for interventions.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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