An improved learning-and-optimization train fare design method for addressing commuting congestion at CBD stations

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - rail, place - cbd, ridership - commuting, ridership - demand, planning - methods


Learning-and-optimization, Commuting congestion management, Train fare design, Bi-objective optimization


This study proposes an improved learning-and-optimization train fare design method to deal with the commuting congestion of train stations at the central business district (CBD). The conventional learning-and-optimization scheme needs accurate boarding/alighting demand to update the train fare in each trial. However, when congestion happens, the observed boarding/alighting demand will be larger than the actual boarding/alighting demand due to the delays and the longer dwelling time. Thus, the actual boarding/alighting demand is not available in practice. The improved algorithm deals with this issue by using inexact and less information to determine the new trial fare during the iteration. Namely, the improved method bypasses the conditions that may lead to biased results so as to significantly enhance the reliability of the learning-and-optimization method. The simplified algorithm also makes this method more practical. The convergence property of the proposed algorithm is rigorously proved and the convergence rate is demonstrated to be exponential. Numerical studies are performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the improved learning-and-optimization method.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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