How Do Shared Dockless E-Scooter Services Affect Mobility Practices in Paris? A Survey-Based Estimation of Modal Shift

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, mode - car, mode - bike, mode - other, mode - pedestrian, place - europe, place - urban, policy - environment, policy - sustainable, planning - surveys, organisation - regulation, ridership - behaviour, ridership - mode choice


modal change, shared dockless e-scooters, walking, cycling, public transportation, sustainable mobility


Shared dockless e-scooters were first launched in Paris in the summer of 2018. These services were met with mixed reception: although some praised them for offering a new mobility solution to urban dwellers, others soon questioned their environmental impact. An emerging body of literature using lifecycle analysis shows that shared e-scooters are more pollutant than walking, cycling, and public transportation, but remain preferable to cars. To better grasp the impacts of dockless e-scooters, it is therefore necessary to identify which modes of transportation they replace. As mobility highly depends on local context, city-specific data are needed. Although modal change data from cities in North America and New Zealand are available, there is no similar information from dense European cities. Using quantitative survey data collected from shared e-scooter users in Paris, the present research offers novel data on modal shift toward dockless e-scooters in the French capital. Results show that for their last trip riding a shared e-scooter, most users would have walked or used public transportation had e-scooters not been an option, and only a limited share of them would have used a car. However, the overall impact of e-scooters on walking and public transportation use remains limited and they display a significant complementarity with public transportation. Such city-specific data on e-scooter use and impacts provide valuable inputs for local public authorities to implement efficient and tailored regulatory measures, so as to include these services in sustainable mobility policies.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.