Incorporating Practical Degree of Saturation in Capacity Estimation of On-Street, Mid-Block, Off-Line Bus Stops

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, infrastructure - stop, operations - traffic, operations - performance, operations - capacity


Bus, stop, traffic


The effectiveness of an on-street bus facility depends on the general traffic that shares the lane used by buses. The Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM) methodology was used to estimate facility bus capacity based on critical stop operation. Hisham et al. provided an improved understanding of performance of an on-street, mid-block, off-line bus stop by relating bus stop capacity to the adjacent lane traffic flow rate. Using the TCQSM methodology, bus stop capacity was determined by adopting an estimated operation margin that relates to a design bus stop failure rate. However, failure rate is theoretically ambiguous and difficult to quantify in practice, particularly under high volume traffic conditions. In contrast, degree of saturation is a direct measure of operating conditions experienced by buses using the stop, and by the adjacent lane general traffic, so it directly affects approach delay and queuing. The aim of this study was to better understand performance at on-street, mid-block, off-line bus stops by considering degrees of saturation of loading areas and the adjacent lane rather than design failure rate according to the TCQSM methodology, and to ensure that waiting times upstream of bus stops are kept to acceptable levels by determining bus stop maximum working capacity.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.