How Does Ride-Hailing Influence Individual Mode Choice? An Examination Using Longitudinal Trip Data from the Seattle Region

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, place - urban, ridership - behaviour, ridership - mode choice, ridership - modelling


Shared mobility, ride-hailing, longitudinal data, substitution between travel modes, complementarity between travel modes


This study investigates the impacts of ride-hailing, which we define as mobility services consisting of both conventional taxis and app-based services offered by transportation network companies, on individual mode choice. We examine whether ride-hailing substitutes for or complements travel by driving, public transit, or walking and biking. The study overcomes some of the limitations of convenience samples or cross-sectional surveys used in past research by employing a longitudinal dataset of individual travel behavior and socio-demographic information. The data include three waves of travel log data collected between 2012 and 2018 in transit-rich areas of the Seattle region. We conducted individual-level panel data modeling, estimating independently pooled models and fixed-effect models of average daily trip count and duration for each mode, while controlling for various factors that affect travel behavior. The results provide evidence of substitution effects of ride-hailing on driving. We found that cross-sectionally, participants who used more ride-hailing tended to drive less, and that longitudinally, an increase in ride-hailing usage was associated with fewer driving trips. No significant associations were found between ride-hailing and public transit usage or walking and biking. Based on detailed travel data of a large population in a major U.S. metropolitan area, the study highlights the value of collecting and analyzing longitudinal data to understand the impacts of new mobility services.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.