Robust optimization for integrated planning of electric-bus charger deployment and charging scheduling

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, technology - alternative fuels, infrastructure - fleet management, infrastructure - maintainance, infrastructure - vehicle, planning - methods


Public transit (PT), electric buses (EBs), fast en-route charging


Public transit (PT) operators have been replacing existing bus fleets with electric buses (EBs) to achieve carbon neutrality. To ensure a cost-effective EB operation with driving range anxiety, fast en-route charging technology has been adopted to recharge EBs during the dwell time. This study aims to determine an integrated robust planning for EB systems, by simultaneously optimizing en-route charger deployment, charging schedule and EB battery configuration, with the goal to minimize the total cost. A deterministic optimization model was first formulated that incorporates multiple practical factors such as weight-related energy consumption and charging capacity. Then we move forward to build robust optimization models to consider the energy consumption uncertainty. The developed models are transformed into equivalent and tractable formulations, which can be solved efficiently by off-the-shelf solvers. Lastly, numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed models can provide an optimal and robust EB system planning solution for PT operators.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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