Effect of transit-oriented design on pedestrian and cyclist safety using bivariate spatial models

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, mode - bus, place - north america, place - urban, land use - transit oriented development, land use - planning, land use - urban density, infrastructure - stop, planning - safety/accidents


Pedestrian and bicyclist involved crashes, Crash frequency models, Bivariate models, Transit stops


Introduction: Walking and cycling for transportation provide immense benefits (e.g., health, environmental, social). However, pedestrians and bicyclists are the most vulnerable segment of the traveling public due to the lack of protective structure and difference in body mass compared with motorized vehicles. Numerous studies are dedicated to enhancing active transportation modes, but very few studies are devoted to the safety analysis of the transit stops, which serve as the important modal interface for pedestrians and bicyclists. Method: This study bridges the gap by developing joint models based on the multivariate conditional autoregressive (MCAR) priors with distance-oriented neighboring weight matrix. For this purpose, transit-oriented design (TOD) related data in Los Angeles County were used for model development. Feature selection relying on both random forest (RF) and correlation analysis was employed, which leads to different covariates inputs to each of the two joint models, resulting in increased model flexibility. An integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) algorithm was adopted due to its fast, yet robust, analysis. For a comprehensive comparison of the predictive accuracy of models, different evaluation criteria were utilized. Results: The results demonstrate that models with correlation effect perform much better than the models without a correlation of pedestrians and bicyclists. The joint models also aid in the identification of the significant covariates contributing to the safety of each of the two active transportation modes. The findings show that population density, employment density, and bus stop density positively influence bicyclist-involved crashes, suggesting that an increase in population, employment, or the number of bus stops leads to more active modes involved collisions. Practical Applications: The findings of this study may prove helpful in the development and implementation of the safety management process to improve the roadway environment for the active modes in the long run.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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