Reliability-based equitable transit frequency design


Yu Jiang

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, policy - sustainable, policy - equity, operations - frequency, operations - reliability, ridership - attitudes, planning - methods


Reliability-based transit assignment, transit frequency setting, transport equity, artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, multiobjective bilevel optimisation


Fairness is an important criterion for achieving sustainable urban development. While most existing studies focus on accessing or evaluating the fairness condition of a given transit network, this study explicitly incorporates fairness as an objective in the planning step. A multi-objective bilevel programming model is developed where the lower level problem is the reliability-based transit assignment problem and the upper level problem is to determine optimal frequency settings to simultaneously minimise the total effective travel cost and maximise the network fairness condition. A multi-objective Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is developed to solve the bilevel model. Numerical studies find that: (1) increasing the frequency may not improve the fairness condition; (2) there is a tradeoff between the two objectives (3) the effect of passengers’ risk aversion attitude on the fairness measurement depends on the frequency setting; it could either amplify the fairness measurements or have no impact.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.