Mode choice and the first-/last-mile burden: The moderating effect of street-level walkability

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - impacts, land use - planning, place - asia, place - urban, planning - surveys, ridership - commuting, ridership - mode choice


first and last mile (FLM), transit use, household travel survey data, walking environment


The first and last mile (FLM) of transit trips are associated with physical activity, often placing a burden on transit users. FLMs that are short, safe, and convenient to walk could facilitate transit use. Using household travel survey data of the Seoul metropolitan area, we examine how walkability features (e.g., greenness, building and sidewalk density, and level of enclosure) of the FLM mitigate the burdens associated with the FLM. Our results suggest that designing better walking environments could encourage more transit use for low-income commuters, which further provide planning implications for equity. We also find that the moderating effect of walkability is slightly larger for the first mile compared to the last mile. Using urban design practices that enhance walkability, the significance of the FLM burden can be mitigated, further promoting transit use.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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