Optimization framework for integrated battery electric bus planning and charging scheduling

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, technology - alternative fuels, economics - capital costs, economics - operating costs, infrastructure - fleet management, infrastructure - maintainance, infrastructure - vehicle, infrastructure - station, operations - scheduling, planning - methods, planning - integration


Battery electric bus (BEB), charging schedule


Battery electric bus’s (BEB) limited operating range and lengthy charging duration are a cause of concern to BEB operators. Fast-charging technology can decrease charging time and battery size while increasing the daily driving range of BEBs, but it will increase the cost of electricity. We first propose a deterministic optimization framework to assist BEB operators in choosing an optimal set of decisions regarding charging station configurations while minimizing capital and operational costs. BEB recharge schedules were accordingly created to minimize the electricity cost while accounting for time-of-use energy pricing and demand charges. We then built a robust counterpart of the deterministic model to consider BEB energy consumption uncertainty, and then transformed it into a tractable formulation. The model results imply that BEB planning and charging scheduling choices are interrelated. Therefore, BEB operators will find an integrated modelling framework highly useful for simultaneously designing their BEB systems and scheduling recharging activities.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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