EFFECTIVE TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT: COMBINING PARKING PRICING, TRANSIT INCENTIVES, AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT IN A COMMERCIAL DISTRICT OF PORTLAND, OREGON
operations - capacity, operations - traffic, infrastructure - vehicle, planning - travel demand management, planning - travel demand management, planning - surveys, land use - planning, ridership - mode choice, ridership - demand, policy - congestion, policy - parking, economics - pricing, organisation - management, mode - bus
Trip reduction, Travel demand management, Transportation demand management, Traffic mitigation, Traffic congestion, TDM measures, Surveys, Strategies, Strategic planning, SOVs, Single occupant vehicles, Priorities, Pricing, Portland (Oregon), Pay parking, Passes (Transportation), Parking capacity, Parking, Objectives, Mode choice, Modal choice, Mitigation measures, Incentives, Gridlock (Traffic), Goals, Choice of transportation, Business districts, Before and after studies
The Lloyd District is a high-density commercial and residential district located a short distance from downtown Portland, Oregon. To address parking and congestion problems, the city of Portland implemented a Lloyd District Partnership Plan in September 1997. This plan consists of a number of elements aimed at curbing single-occupancy vehicle use for the commute to and from the district. This plan included parking pricing in the form of meters (whereas on-street parking had been free), discounted transit passes, and other transportation demand management strategies. The effects of these strategies on travel and parking behavior were assessed, with an emphasis on the relationship between parking pricing and mode choice. A random sample of 1,000 employees in the Lloyd District was surveyed about their travel and parking behavior before and after the installation of the new meters. Research found that, during the 1 year that had elapsed between the implementation of the Lloyd District transportation management programs and the survey information collected, the driver-alone mode for the trip to work by employees in the Lloyd District had decreased by 7%. For the district as a whole, the drive-alone commute share is now about 56%. The program strategies that have emerged as the most significant in effecting this decrease are the installation of the meters and the discounted transit pass program.
Bianco, M, (2000). EFFECTIVE TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT: COMBINING PARKING PRICING, TRANSIT INCENTIVES, AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT IN A COMMERCIAL DISTRICT OF PORTLAND, OREGON, Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1711, p. 46-54.