TRENDS IN VEHICLE KILOMETRES OF TRAVEL IN WORLD CITIES, 1960-1990: UNDERLYING DRIVERS AND POLICY RESPONSES
infrastructure - vehicle, land use - urban sprawl, ridership - drivers, ridership - demand, ridership - growth, place - europe, place - asia, place - urban, mode - mass transit
Vehicle occupancy, Vehicle kilometers of travel, Urban sprawl, Urban areas, United States, Trend (Statistics), Travel models (Travel demand), Travel demand, Transportation policy, Transit, Public transit, Private passenger vehicles, Population growth, Mobility, Mass transit, Local transit, Europe, Cities, Case studies, Canada, Automobile ownership, Australia, Asia
A model has been developed in previous research for private motorized mobility based on the application of dimensional analysis to a selection of key drivers of mobility in cities. This paper explores the application of this private motorized mobility equation in terms of the evolution of private vehicle kilometers of travel over a 30-year period across several cities, and relates these changes to policy initiatives that have or have not been evoked. Increases in private motorized urban vehicle kilometers of travel are shown to arise from population growth, urban sprawl, increased car ownership and decreases in vehicle occupancy. In particular, the worldwide increase in urban mobility since 1960 has been the direct result of increased affluence and the consequent greater accessibility of private motor vehicles, as well as population growth. Urban sprawl has significantly less influence, although it has been significant in cities in the United States, Canada and Australia. Increased car ownership does not automatically flow to increased private vehicle kilometers of travel. Several cities in Europe and Asia have shown clear policy initiatives can contain the growth of urban private motorized mobility. Although the studied model predicts motorized mobility, a full description of urban mobility requires an understanding of mobility by public transit as well.
Cameron, I, Lyons, T, Kenworthy, J. (2004). TRENDS IN VEHICLE KILOMETRES OF TRAVEL IN WORLD CITIES, 1960-1990: UNDERLYING DRIVERS AND POLICY RESPONSES. Transport Policy, Volume 11, Issue 3, p. 287-298.