ROAD USER CHARGING AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE: IDENTIFYING THE PROCESSES OF ECONOMIC CHANGE
operations - traffic, planning - travel demand management, planning - travel demand management, land use - impacts, land use - planning, ridership - forecasting, ridership - forecasting, ridership - demand, policy - congestion, economics - revenue, economics - pricing, organisation - competition, organisation - management, place - cbd, mode - bus, mode - mass transit
Value pricing (Road pricing), User charges, Trip reduction, Travel demand management, Transportation planning, Transportation demand management, Transit, Traffic congestion, TDM measures, Service industries, Scenarios, Road pricing, Revenues, Real estate development, Public transit, Projections, Professional personnel, Policy making, Plan implementation, Mass transit, Local transit, Interviewing, Improvements, Hypothecation, Gridlock (Traffic), Government employees, Forecasting, Economic impacts, Downtowns, Competition, City centers, Central business districts, Businesses
Much of the uncertainty about the linkage between road user charging and business performance in charged city centers concerns the issue of revenue hypothecation and how this will be implemented in conjunction with the charges. This paper presents the results of an in-depth interview program with specialists from business, property development, government and academia, concerning the processes of economic change that could impact business performance in city centers surrounded by road use charging cordons. Findings suggest that the processes brought about by charging depend on the relative impact of negative competitiveness effects (caused by the introduction of charging) versus positive amenity effects (caused by the reduction in congestion or the recycling of revenues into public transit and environmental improvements). The responses to charging operate in a complex and cyclical process, but the general pattern shows that charging with hypothecation may enhance business performance in city centers in the longer term. Increased public transit accessibility resulting from a charging policy, as well as image improvements associated with urban quality enhancements, can favorably impact businesses located in the city center. An overriding concern is how long it will take before the improvements reach their full effect. Implications for policy implementation and planning are discussed, including the need to better understand the business community's concerns.
WHITEHEAD, T. (2002). ROAD USER CHARGING AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE: IDENTIFYING THE PROCESSES OF ECONOMIC CHANGE. Transport Policy, Volume 9, Issue 3, p. 221-240.