Title

TRIPPERPAS SMART CARD PROJECT: LESSONS FROM THE NETHERLANDS

Authors

Francis CHEUNG

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

2004

Subject Area

planning - surveys, technology - ticketing systems

Keywords

Travel behavior, Technology assessment, Surveys, Smart cards, Questionnaires, Performance, Interviewing, Integrated circuit cards, Groningen (Netherlands), Focus groups, Electronic ticketing, Contactless fare cards, Chip cards, Before and after studies, Acceptance

Abstract

Tripperpas was an electronic smart card that enabled users to travel and pay for bus journeys in the municipality of Groningen, the Netherlands. Between January 2000 and December 2002, Tripperpas could be purchased and used on the bus network served by Arriva. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the efficacy of the contactless chip card technology and to assess the acceptability of the new ticketing method in a working urban environment. The practical experience gained could be used to guide the development and implementation of a nationwide electronic ticketing system. In the 2-year trial period, more than 4,000 Tripperpas were used. To monitor progress and evaluate performance, surveys were conducted (one before and three after) with questionnaires, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. The goals were to elucidate passenger experiences and staff responses. Additional surveys were conducted to investigate the reactions of nonusers and ex-users. The research findings presented a comprehensive picture of the strengths and weaknesses of Tripperpas compared with the conventional strip ticket. They also provided valuable insight into travel behavior as well as staff and passenger preferences. Research outcomes will assist the introduction of a nationwide electronic ticketing system in the near future.