Title

URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING FOR AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY IN DELHI, INDIA, OF ROLE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC COSTS IN WELFARE MAXIMIZATION OF MOBILITY CHOICE

Authors

K Kokaz
P Rogers

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

2002

Subject Area

infrastructure - vehicle, land use - planning, land use - urban sprawl, ridership - mode choice, ridership - demand, organisation - management, place - urban, mode - bus

Keywords

Welfare economics, Vehicle exhaust, Urban transportation, Urban sprawl, Under developed countries, Travel models (Travel demand), Travel demand, Transportation planning, Transportation control measures, Third world, Smog control, Optimization, Optimisation, Mode choice, Modal choice, Mathematical models, Less developed countries, Large cities, Intracity transportation, Intracity bus transportation, Exhaust gases, Exhaust emissions, Emission control, Economic and social factors, Developing countries, Delhi (India), Choice of transportation, Case studies, Bus transit, Automobile exhaust, Air quality management, Air pollution control, Air pollution, Air pollutants

Abstract

Recent economic expansion and population growth in developing countries have had a big impact on the development of large cities like Delhi, India. Accompanied by Delhi's rapid spatial growth over the last 25 years, urban sprawl has contributed to increased travel. The vehicle fleet projected at current growth rates will result in more than 13 million vehicles in Delhi in 2020. Planning and managing such a rapidly growing transport sector will be a challenge. Choices made now will have effects lasting well into the middle of the century. With such rapid transport growth rates, automobile emissions have become the fastest increasing source of urban air pollution. In India, most urban areas, including Delhi, already have major air pollution problems that could be greatly exacerbated if growth of the transport sector is managed unwisely. The transport plans designed to meet such large increases in travel demand will have to emphasize the movement of people, not vehicles, for a sustainable transportation system. Therefore, a mathematical model was developed to estimate the optimal transportation mix to meet this projected passenger-km demand while satisfying environmental goals, reducing congestion levels, and improving system and fuel efficiencies by exploiting a variety of policy options at the minimum overall cost or maximum welfare from transport. The results suggest that buses will continue to satisfy most passenger transport in the coming decades, so planning done in accordance with improving bus operations is crucial.