Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - interchange/transfer, mode - bus, operations - scheduling


Waiting time, Transfers, Timetables, Synchronization, Schedules and scheduling, Customer satisfaction, Convenience, Bus transit operations, Arrivals and departures


The problem of designing efficient bus synchronization into a timetable is addressed. Synchronization means a fit between the arrival time of one bus to the departure time of another bus, so that passengers can transfer from one bus to another. Synchronization is the most difficult task of transit schedulers and is addressed intuitively. The scheduler, in fact, attempts to create the departure times in the timetable while complying with the required frequency, efficient assignment of trips to a single bus chain, and synchronization of certain arrivals. Efficient procedures are presented for applying maximum synchronization as a useful tool for the scheduler in creating timetables. These procedures attempt to maximize the number of simultaneous bus arrivals at the connection (transfer) points of the bus network. Accounting for user satisfaction and convenience, transit schedulers appreciate the importance of creating a timetable with maximum synchronization, which enables the transfer of passengers from one route to another with minimum wait time at transfer nodes. Efficient procedures are described to create the maximum, simultaneous bus arrivals, and a series of examples is presented to illustrate the procedures.