What motivates the use of shared mobility systems and their integration with public transit? Evidence from a choice experiment study

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, place - urban, ridership - commuting, ridership - mode choice, ridership - modelling, ridership - elasticity, ridership - behaviour, planning - methods, planning - integration, planning - surveys, policy - sustainable


Bicycles, Sustainable development, Urban transportation


Shared mobility, including bike-sharing, shared e-scooter, and ride-hailing, could improve transportation sustainability when substituting private car use and integrating with public transit. However, if shared mobility competes with other green modes, it cannot guarantee sustainability benefits. The competing and synergistic relationships between conventional modes and shared mobility are complex and not well-studied to date. Understanding users’ preferences in mode choice decisions among shared mobility, conventional modes, and multimodal systems can help better evaluate the impact of shared mobility adoption and support related policies. This paper presents the design and results of a stated-preference choice experiment study conducted in Indianapolis, Indiana. An integrated choice and latent variable (ICLV) model was estimated to identify attributes that affect travelers’ mode choices for both non-commuting and commuting purposes. Results show that (1) travel cost and travel time are significant variables and their impact on mode choice for system integration and competition is elastic; and (2) user heterogeneity can be observed through three latent variables (perceptions of shared mobility, travel attributes importance, and social values) to identify traveler’s preferences and concerns for mode choice. The contributions from this study include: (1) developing quantitative models to estimate mode choice behavior with regard to shared mobility use, and (2) identifying a set of policy guidelines for system development to encourage multimodal usage and decrease car dependency.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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