A study on the possibility of a BUS route network with connections based on an analysis of the efficiency of the BUS route network and resistance OF BUS users to transfer

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - bus, ridership - attitudes, economics - fare revenue, economics - operating costs, planning - surveys, planning - service improvement, planning - route design


bus route network, operating costs, fare revenue, transfer, willing to wait


In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to evaluate the efficiency of the bus route network in Akita City, Akita Prefecture, Japan. The DEA efficiency indices utilized route length (km) and overlap index (number of lines/km) as input values for the network efficiency, while the number of buses per year was used as the output value for the deployment efficiency. Operating costs (yen) were used as the input value for the revenue efficiency, and Operating costs (yen) and fare revenue (yen) were used as input and output values, respectively, for the revenue efficiency. The results of this study show that the overall network efficiency is low, indicating that complex and radial bus routes are inefficient and can be improved. Next, we surveyed the attitudes of residents of Akita City, regarding the use of bus routes. The results showed that 18.5% of the respondents did not want to transfer between bus trips, whereas 69.7% could tolerate transferring up to once. Furthermore, 2.7% of the respondents were unwilling to wait for the bus, whereas 52.4% were willing to wait within 10 min, while 38.6% were willing to wait between 10 and 20 min.

Based on the results of this analysis, which was conducted by a university laboratory, suggestions were made to the local government on how to provide an efficient network. The bus routes in Akita City are operated by private operators but managed by the local government. Thus, efficient bus routes with connections can be constructed through proposals to local governments.

Inefficient bus routes were identified using DEA, and a network with transfers was examined for their improvement. When examining such a network, the attitudes of the users toward transfers must be understood; the relationship involves understanding the attitudes of the users toward inefficient bus routes using DEA. This study revealed that a large number of people could tolerate up to one transfer. The transit time is a significant factor in the acceptance.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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