Women’s Vulnerability on Public Transport

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, mode - rail, ridership - behaviour, planning - education, planning - personal safety/crime, planning - surveys, policy - equity


mode choice, sustainability and resilience, transportation and society, transportation in the developing countries, policy and planning, gender and women, social and economic factors


Women are moving forward with males across all domains in today’s modern world. However, women are yet to experience the same priority. Public transport (PT) is one of the many areas where they very often encounter challenges. When it comes to regularly using PT, women suffer the most. Even though it is mainly women who are at risk of harassment on PT, policymakers frequently ignore this fact in a male-dominated society. This study’s primary goal is to identify the main factors contributing to women being harassed on PT from a female and male perspective. Additionally, the most vulnerable mode from the viewpoint of harassment and safety measures arising from harassment were examined. This study assessed 1,600 responses from a questionnaire survey with a balanced gender distribution. Results were predicted using the Bayesian belief network (BBN). The study explored the most likely contributing causes to harassment in transportation environments and, notably, the respondents identified a male-dominated culture as the primary source of harassment. Regardless of gender or location, a bus is regarded as the PT mode on which women are most vulnerable. Rail is always preferred over other PT when traveling long distances. In conclusion, several policies have been proposed. The researchers suggest a “5P” policy in light of the respondents’ comments, prior research, and the current environment. A safe, dependable PT system can be ensured by implementing new technologies, updating design, and providing drivers and staff with appropriate training.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.