G L. Newmark

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - vehicle, land use - planning, ridership - drivers, policy - environment, economics - appraisal/evaluation, organisation - management, mode - bus, mode - taxi


Vehicle exhaust, Under developed countries, Trucks, Transit buses, Third world, Tel Aviv (Israel), Taxicabs, Road freight vehicles, Particulates, Ozone, Nitrogen oxides, Motor vehicles, Methodology, Methodologies, Lorries, Less developed countries, Israel, Inventory, Inventories, Hydrocarbons, Heavy goods vehicles, Exhaust gases, Exhaust emissions, Evaluation and assessment, Environmental policy, Environmental planning, Environmental management, Elderly drivers, Diesel motor exhaust gas, Diesel exhaust emissions, Diesel engine exhaust gases, Developing countries, Data collection, Data acquisition, Cargo vehicles, Carbon monoxide, Cabs (Taxicabs), Automotive vehicles, Automobiles, Automobile exhaust, Air pollution, Air pollutants, Aged drivers


Air pollution from motor vehicles is an acute urban problem in many rapidly developing countries. Air quality monitoring in Israel has both demonstrated the severity of the problem in Israel and identified transportation emissions to be the major contributor to its etiology. Currently, a major concern is the high level of nitrogen oxide nonattainment in Tel Aviv. Thousands of nitrogen oxide violations are recorded there every year. This pollution both affects the local population and provides the driving factor behind the ozone formation downwind in Jerusalem and the West Bank. This paper presents the innovative effort to compile varying streams of data to create an urban vehicle emissions inventory for the city of Tel Aviv. The inventory provides an excellent understanding of the relative contributions of four air pollutants between and within each vehicle cluster. The major findings are that, of total urban vehicle emissions, cars purchased before 1993, when catalytic converters became mandatory, produce 60% of carbon monoxide and 55% of hydrocarbon emissions. City buses produce 67% of nitrogen oxide and 39% of particulate matter emissions. Trucks and taxis each contribute about an eighth of total nitrogen oxide and a quarter of total particulate matter emissions. The major policy direction suggested by these findings is diesel fleet vehicle mitigation. In short, an effective approach is presented for industrializing nations to quickly assess their mobile pollution sources, and the foundation data are compiled for further mobile-source analyses in Israel.