Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - frequency, economics - appraisal/evaluation, mode - rail


Wheel rail interaction, Transverse grooving, Tire pavement interface, Tining (Pavements), Texture, Test sections, Surface texture, Surface properties, Subjective evaluation, Sound level, Rolling contact, Road surface analyzer (ROSAN), Quality control, Product inspection, Pavement grooving, Noise pollution, Noise parameters, Noise, Measuring, Measurement, Frequency analysis, Concrete pavements, Antiskid treatment


The second phase of a project researching the texture and noise characteristics of portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements was sponsored by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. The team of Marquette University and HNTB Corporation measured and analyzed the noise and texture parameters of 57 test sites in Colorado, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Wisconsin. Conclusions pertaining to tire-and-pavement noise were drawn using data from several types of acoustical tests, including objective noise measurements (exterior and interior), subjective noise evaluations, and a prominent frequency analysis. Texture parameters of all test sites were measured with the road surface analyzer (ROSAN). ROSAN texture measurements proved invaluable in analyzing why different textures exhibited different noise characteristics. Both uniform and random transverse tining provide higher interior and exterior noise levels than skewed or longitudinal tining. Transverse tining, even in some random-spaced textures, can cause a discrete frequency or whine. As the depth and width of tining increased, so did the noise levels. Randomly spaced patterns are sensitive to spacing. Ground PCC pavement exhibited no discrete frequencies. Recommendations include the need for better quality control over tining and a wet-pavement-accident study of longitudinal tining. If noise considerations are paramount, longitudinal tining is recommended. If texture is paramount, skewed tining is recommended. If a skew is not possible, then carefully constructed random transverse is recommended.