Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - service span, land use - planning, ridership - mode choice, ridership - commuting, ridership - commuting


Working hours, Work days, Women, Weekdays, Trips, Trip chaining, Travel patterns, Travel behavior, Travel, Transportation planning, Telecommuting, Shopping trips, Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, Mode choice, Modal choice, Men, Males, Land use planning, Journeys, Jobs, Households, Hours of service (Work hours), Hours of labor, Future, Females, Family responsibilities, Diurnal variations, Daily, Choice of transportation, Automobile use, Automobile usage, Automobile travel


Gender and household life cycle together affect daily travel behavior. Although this makes intuitive sense, transportation planners and policy makers have done little to understand what effect and impact these factors have on daily transportation choices. The 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey was used to examine trip-chaining behavior of adult men and women traveling Monday through Friday. The data show that women continue to make more trips to perform household-sustaining activities such as shopping and family errands to a greater extent than men. Women, especially with children in the household, are more likely to chain these household-sustaining trips to the trip to and from work. Women's participation in the labor force is at an all-time high, but women's patterns in travel to work are different from men's patterns, and they vary with family and life-cycle status. The type and location of jobs that women take are likely affected by their greater household and family responsibilities. The biggest question for the future is whether and how the changes in women's status in the workplace, and perhaps the concomitant change in the household dynamics and responsibilities, will affect travel behavior of both men and women. These changes will deeply affect the development of programs related to transit, land-use planning, work schedules, telecommuting, and other programs related to automobile use.