Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - route design, planning - surveys, mode - mass transit


Transit, Surveys, Stated preferences, Route selection, Route choice, Revealed preferences, Public transit, Mass transit, Logits, Logit models, Local transit, Level of service, Helsinki (Finland)


A combined revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) survey that was done in the Helsinki, Finland, metropolitan area to reveal the importance of different level-of-service (LOS) factors in public transportation is described. The study was done as a route choice survey between origin-destination zone pairs with two route alternatives that had differences in total travel time, number of transfers, possibility of getting a seat, walking and waiting times, and fare. A separate SP game of transfer environment was also done. The SP study was undertaken among the RP respondents. The levels of the SP attributes were tailored according to the trip in the RP survey. The RP and SP data were analyzed together using structured-tree-type logit models to adjust the variances in different data sets. According to the study results one transfer equals about 10 min of door-to-door travel time, and passengers are willing to travel 15 min longer to get a seat for the trip. The experiences from the use of a tailored postal survey in a SP study were quite positive. However, regardless of study method a very careful definition of the attributes and attribute levels is needed. The results of the survey are quite in line with other similar studies reported in the literature and give an estimate of the passenger response to the public transportation LOS attributes included in the study.