C Nuworsoo

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - drivers, economics - revenue, organisation - structures, mode - bus


Trip length, Travel time, Travel distance, Storage facilities, Site selection, Placement (Location), Nonrevenue costs, Minimization, Minimisation, Maintenance structures, Maintenance facilities, Location, Locating, Journey time, Deadheading, Bus transit operations, Bus operators, Bus drivers, Baltimore (Maryland)


Feasibility studies were conducted for a proposed bus division of the Mass Transit Administration to serve northeastern Baltimore. The study objective was to determine the comparative savings or additional costs between using existing locations and new locations. The focus of the analysis was nonrevenue operating costs, which are affected by location because of vehicle deadhead travel, associated operator travel, and other operator travel for relief purposes. Based on the premise that "the optimal location of a storage facility is that which minimizes pullout and pull-in distances and times plus relief travel time between the facility and various terminal points," the model was constructed with detailed data on existing operations and applied to each candidate site. The procedure involved "microscopic" calculation of each individual pullout and pull-in that mark the beginning and end, respectively, of bus transit operations. Compared with existing operations data, the model projected deadhead operations to within 4% of actual data and relief travels to within 10%. When components were aggregated, the overall margin of error was 1%. Various operating scenarios were constructed by distributing combinations of services to existing and proposed facilities with the objective of minimizing nonrevenue operations costs. One existing and one new site were identified as the top choices for further evaluation of construction and operations costs. The model can serve as a tool for both site selection and distribution of units among various locations. Beyond transit operations, the model is extendable to governmental and municipal facilities.