Determinants of distance traveled with a focus on the elderly: a multilevel analysis in the Hamilton CMA, Canada

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - vehicle, ridership - drivers, ridership - old people, mode - bus


Trip length, Travel distance, Socioeconomic factors, Socioeconomic aspects, Senior citizens, Passengers, Older people, Old people, Neighborhoods, Motor vehicle operators, Hamilton (Canada), Elderly persons, Drivers, Distance, Bus usage, Bus travel, Automobile use, Automobile usage, Automobile travel, Aged


The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of mean trip distance traveled by different mode types. The study uses data from the Hamilton metropolitan area in Canada, and multilevel models to investigate the variables that impact distance traveled, with a specific focus on demographic aging factors. The results of the study validate previous findings regarding the decline in distance traveled as age advances. In addition, it is found that: (1) while this effect of age is present for all modes analyzed (car driving, car passenger, and bus) it is considerably more marked for car driving; (2) there are significant effects compounded by the interrelated factors of gender, employment constraints, household contextual factors; and (3) neighborhoods with high commercial and residential mix showed a negative relation with distance traveled only in the case of car driver.


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