Effective ways to grow urban bus markets - a synthesis of evidence

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - surveys, place - europe, place - asia, place - north america, place - australasia, place - urban, mode - bus, literature review - literature review


Surveys, Ridership, Patronage (Transit ridership), North America, Literature surveys, Literature reviews, Intracity bus transportation, Europe, Cost effectiveness, Bus transit operations, Bus transit, Australasia


This paper provides a synthesis of the evidence on the patronage growth performance of bus improvement measures in urban settings. The evidence includes a summary of experience in Europe, North America and Australasia focusing on service improvement measures including network structure and service levels, bus priority measures, vehicles and stop infrastructure, fares and ticketing systems, passenger information and marketing, personal safety and security and synergy effects of measures. The source is the research literature and documented experienced from a series of studies undertaken by the authors over the last decade. It includes the results of an international bus expert Delphi survey concerning bus improvement measures focused on patronage growth. The paper synthesizes the evidence to identify measures which are most likely to grow patronage including consideration of cost-effectiveness of measures.


Journal of Transport Geography home Page: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09666923