Impacts of Congestion Charging on Shopping Trips in Edinburgh

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, planning - surveys, land use - impacts, ridership - mode choice, policy - congestion, policy - parking, economics - pricing, place - urban, place - cbd, mode - bus, mode - car


User charges, Urban transit, Travel surveys, Transportation policy, Traffic congestion, Shopping trips, Regression analysis, Regression, Parking places, Parking facilities, Parking areas, Mode choice, Modal choice, Gridlock (Traffic), Edinburgh (Scotland), Downtowns, Congestion pricing, City centers, Choice of transportation, Central business districts, Car parks, Accessibility


This paper presents an investigation into the impacts of the introduction of congestion charges on shopping trips in Edinburgh. Other transport policies such as parking costs, public transport costs and petrol fees have also been investigated, using logistic regression analysis. The results indicate a potential reduction in car shopping trips to the city center as a result of introducing congestion charging and a possible increase in shopping trips by other modes. Traffic congestion does not seem to be the main barrier for people to shop at the city center; rather access to and availability of parking spaces most affect the accessibility of the city center. Moreover, the introduction of congestion charges may result in the improvement of accessibility of public transport as well as reductions in traffic congestion allowing better access into the city center.


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