C Willoughby

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - planning, ridership - growth, economics - pricing, place - urban, mode - subway/metro, mode - car


Value pricing (Road pricing), Urban transportation policy, Urban transportation, Urban transit, Urban planning, Urban development, Transportation policy, Transportation industry, Transportation, Transport, Town planning, Social costs, Singapore, Road pricing, Poverty, Population growth, Poor people, Metropolitan area planning, Low income groups, Low income families, Land use planning, Land use, Intracity transportation, Highway usage, Highway travel, Fiscal policy, Externalities, Economic growth, Community planning, City planning, Car use restraint, Automobile ownership


Over the four decades since it became self-governing in 1959, Singapore has maintained a record of sustained economic success, almost unparalleled elsewhere in the world. Because of the rapid economic growth it sustained over these last 40 years and its small physical space, Singapore has had to carefully manage the process of motorization, that is, the spread of private motor vehicle ownership and use. The article provides a summary of the measures taken to manage the process. Despite the inevitable imperfection of the policies adopted and, more seriously, of related land-use and resettlement policies, the motorization restraints had no major negative side effects on economic growth. In fact, they generated substantial funds for the improvement of social welfare. The package of policies applied merits close examination by developing and transition countries or cities that need urgently to find new ways of raising financial resources to meet the huge needs arising from population growth and resettlement.


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