Integrated Analysis of Toll Lanes and Bus Priority Lanes

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, infrastructure - bus/tram priority, infrastructure - bus/tram priority, infrastructure - bus/tram lane, infrastructure - bus/tram lane, planning - integration, policy - equity, policy - congestion, mode - bus


Traveler reaction, Travel time, Traffic congestion, Social justice, Social equity, Public acceptability, Lane allocation, Journey time, Integration, HOT lanes, High occupancy toll lanes, Gridlock (Traffic), Fairness (Social equity), Equity (Justice), Bus lanes


Although toll lanes may generate net benefits, their political acceptability is problematic, especially for vertical equity among income classes. A strategy is presented for gaining acceptability for a toll lane in a congested corridor through a lane allocation approach, which integrates toll and bus lanes along the corridor. A bimodal equilibrium concept is illustrated for the lane allocation scheme for bus and toll lanes. A travel demand model is designed to determine traveler reactions to such lane allocation. With link cost functions specialized by several link groups, the demand model uses the multiclass, multicriteria network equilibrium model in the multimodal network with elastic demand. To address simultaneously the political and economic issues arising from toll and bus lanes in a network, a multiobjective decision-making model supports the lane allocation model. An equity measure based on travel time variations among user groups is incorporated in the decision model and an internal toll-funding scheme is developed to consider revenue allocation. The toll funding can increase available financial resources and may serve most users whose travel is affected by the toll lane. An example analysis indicates that an effective integration strategy of toll and bus lanes and a toll-funding scheme can enhance public acceptability of toll lanes and produces synergistic benefits.