Transit-based smart parking: An evaluation of the San Francisco Bay area field test

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - station, infrastructure - vehicle, planning - surveys, policy - parking, economics - appraisal/evaluation, technology - intelligent transport systems, mode - rail, literature review - literature review


Travel behavior, Surveys, San Francisco Bay Area, RTI, Road transport informatics, Rail transit stations, Parking guidance systems, Literature surveys, Literature reviews, IVHS, ITS (Intelligent transportation systems), Intelligent vehicle highway systems, Intelligent transportation systems, In situ tests, Field tests, Evaluation, Costs, ATT, Advanced transport telematics


This paper presents an evaluation of the first transit-based smart parking project in the US at the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District station in Oakland, California. The paper begins with a review of the smart parking literature; next the smart parking field test is described including its capital, operational, and maintenance costs; and finally the results of the participant survey analysis are presented. Some key user response results are: (1) most participants used the smart parking system 1-3 days a month for commute travel and (2) 37% of respondents had seen the changeable message signs with parking information, but only 32% of those used this information to decide whether to continue driving or take BART. Some key changes in participant travel behavior include: (1) increases in BART mode share, (2) reductions in drive alone modal share, (3) decreased average commute time, and (4) an overall reduction in total vehicle miles of travel.


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