Joint Models of Home-Based Tour Mode and Destination Choices: Applications to a Developing Country

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - mode choice, ridership - commuting, ridership - commuting, mode - subway/metro


Work trips, Under developed countries, Travel time, Travel behavior, Transportation modes, Third world, School trips, Nested logit models, Modes, Mode choice, Modal choice, Microsimulation, Metropolitan areas, Less developed countries, Journey to work, Journey time, Jakarta (Indonesia), Households, Developing countries, Destinations, Conurbations, Commuting, Choice of transportation, Children, Child, Case studies, Activity-based modeling


This paper presents joint models of mode and destination choices for home-based tours within an activity-based modeling framework for Jakarta, Indonesia, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Asia. Nested logit models were developed separately with four different activity types: work, school, maintenance, and discretionary. Mode and destination choices of all household members were specifically modeled, including children, who were usually overlooked in previous studies. Different models were estimated for school and work tours, usually combined in previous studies. Eight of the most commonly used combinations of travel modes in the region were considered: drive alone, shared ride, motorcycle, taxi, motorcycle taxi, transit with motorized access, transit with nonmotorized access, and nonmotorized transportation. Eleven representative tour destinations were sampled by a stratified importance sampling method designed on the basis of distance and size variables. Size variables were defined for different activity types to reflect the magnitude of attraction of destination zones for that activity. These variables include total number of jobs, students, or households in each zone. A wide variety of different types of variables contributed significantly to the models, including those related to trips, activities and tours, households, individuals, destination zones, and a composite variable of generalized travel time. The modeling results suggest that choice alternatives, structure of the model, and key variables differ from those in the developed world. This study is part of a larger effort to develop a comprehensive activity-based microsimulation modeling system for developing countries.