Employment suburbanisation, reverse commuting and travel behaviour by residents of the central city in the Paris metropolitan area

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - commuting, ridership - commuting, ridership - behaviour, place - urban, place - low density, mode - mass transit, mode - subway/metro


Workplaces, Weekdays, Travel behavior, Transit, Suburbs, Reverse commuting, Public transit, Paris Metropolitan Area, Mass transit, Local transit, Central city residents, Automobile use, Automobile usage, Automobile travel


This paper analyses the relationship between employment suburbanisation in the Paris metropolitan area, the growth of reverse commuting and changes in the weekday travel behaviour of working residents of the central city over a 20-year period. The results show that the number of reverse commuters has significantly increased because the municipality of Paris has lost many jobs but few working residents whilst employment has developed in the suburbs. Reverse commuters are mainly and increasingly high-income professionals whose workplaces are located close to the central city in employment sub-centres that are well served by public transport. Consequently reverse commuters have lower than average car use although differences exist and are related to their professional status. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the conclusion.


Transportation Research Part A Home Page: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09658564