Severity of injury resulting from pedestrian-vehicle crashes: What can we learn from examining the built environment?

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, infrastructure - vehicle, planning - safety/accidents, planning - safety/accidents, policy - environment, mode - pedestrian


Traffic accident victims, Probits, Probit models, Pedestrian safety, Pedestrian accidents, Injury severity, Built environment, Baltimore (Maryland)


This paper examines the impact of personal and environmental characteristics on severity of injuries sustained in pedestrian-vehicle crashes using a generalized ordered probit model. The data covers 2000-2004 of pedestrian-vehicle crashes taken from police incident reports for Baltimore City and supplemented with local land use, urban form and transportation information specific to the individual crash locations. The results on personal and behavioral variables confirm previous findings. Women pedestrians involved in crashes tend to be injured less frequently than their male counterparts; children have an increased likelihood of sustaining injuries and older persons are more likely to be fatally injured. Pedestrians who cross against the traffic signal, are not in a crosswalk and are involved in a crash after dark are associated with greater injury risk. Of the built environment policy variables of interest, transit access and greater pedestrian connectivity, such as central city areas, are significant and negatively associated with injury severity. These results suggest that the environmental conditions should be given more scrutiny and be an important consideration when evaluating and planning for pedestrian safety.


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