Behavioral adjustments and equity effects of congestion pricing: Analysis of morning commutes during the Stockholm Trial

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - mode choice, ridership - commuting, policy - equity, policy - congestion, economics - pricing


Tolls, Stockholm congestion charging trial, Social justice, Social equity, Mode choice, Modal choice, Income, Gender, Fairness (Social equity), Equity (Justice), Departure time, Congestion pricing, Commuting, Commuters, Choice of transportation, Behavior modification


This paper assesses the horizontal and vertical equity effects of the Stockholm Trial with Congestion Pricing for morning commuters, in terms of both travel behavioral adjustments and welfare effects, as a result of the toll's direct effects and the behavioral adjustments. The authors consider specifically two behavioral adjustments: mode choice and departure time choice. Initial car drivers crossing the toll cordon had a 15 percentage-points higher rate of switching to public transit as compared with those not crossing the cordon. The authors also find some evidence of peak spreading, in particular toward a later departure time, as a result of the charging scheme, but most people choose a departure time within 15 minutes both before and during the trial. In the welfare analysis, the authors found no clear pattern of increasing burden by either increasing income or decreasing income, and the increase in the Gini Coefficient was insignificant. The authors also found no significant difference in either the mode-switching behavior or the average welfare effect for women versus for men.


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