Cost-minimizing retrofit/replacement strategies for diesel emissions reduction

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - vehicle, infrastructure - fleet management, organisation - management, mode - bus, mode - school bus


Transportation control measures, Smog control, School buses, Retrofitting, Integer programming, Fleet management, Emission control, Diesel motor exhaust gas, Diesel exhaust emissions, Diesel engine exhaust gases, Diesel buses, Cost effectiveness, Cost benefit analysis, Case studies, Benefit cost analysis, Air quality management, Air pollution control, Accelerated vehicle retirement programs


The cost effectiveness of various emission reduction diesel retrofits is analyzed, as is early vehicle retirement. An integer program is developed to find cost-minimizing cleanup strategies, given reduction goals for various pollutants, as well as technological and budget constraints. Retrofits are assumed to take place in the present, but benefits and costs can be distributed over time. Budget constraints deal with short-term expenditures, while the overall objective is to minimize the net present value of short and long-term costs. The model is intended as a tool both for fleet owners and for government administrators. A case study examines the potential to clean up a diesel school bus fleet.


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