Commuters' Exposure to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide in Hanoi, Vietnam

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - route design, ridership - commuting


Transportation modes, Route selection, Route choice, Peak periods, Particulates, Modes, Hanoi (Vietnam), Commuting, Commuters, Carbon monoxide, Air quality


This study provides estimates of personal exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide while traveling on four major roads in Hanoi, Vietnam. The effect of factors such as mode of transport (mobikes, buses, cars and walking), route, rush-hour, and air-conditioning on the exposure levels are examined. The mean value of particulate matter concentrations was found to be 455 μg m−3, with mobike riders being the most exposed and bus passengers being the least. The mean value of carbon monoxide concentrations was 15.7 ppm, with mobike riders being most exposed and pedestrians being the least exposed. Rush-hour levels for particulate matter and carbon monoxide are higher than during non-rush-hour periods.


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