Modal Split and Commuting Pattern on a Bottleneck-Constrained Highway

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, planning - route design, ridership - commuting, ridership - commuting, policy - fares, mode - bus


Workplaces, Travel behavior, Traffic equilibrium, Sensitivity analysis, Residential areas, Numerical solutions, Numerical analysis, Motor coaches, Morning, Mode share, Modal split, Highways, Fares, Equilibrium assignment, Dispatching, Commuting, Choice models, Buses, Bus routes, Bottlenecks, Automobiles


Every morning, commuters either use their private cars or select the regularly dispatched buses for traveling from a residential area to a workplace on a bottleneck-constrained highway. With the mode split governed by a logit-based formula, the classical bottleneck model and a newly proposed equilibrium bus run choice model are integrated to depict the bottleneck congestion jointly caused by private cars and buses. Numerical results show that the arrival rates of commuters at workplace are different from that at bottleneck. Sensitivity analyses are conducted by varying the combinations of bus fare and dispatch frequency, as well as other model parameters.


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