Congestion Pricing for Multi-Modal Transportation Systems

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, infrastructure - vehicle, land use - planning, ridership - mode choice, policy - congestion, economics - pricing, organisation - management, mode - mass transit, mode - pedestrian


Walking, Vehicular traffic control, Vehicle navigation, Vehicle handling, User charges, Travellers, Travelers, Transit, Traffic management (Traffic control), Traffic equilibrium, Tolls, Street traffic control, Strategies, Strategic planning, Public transit, Priorities, Origin and destination, Objectives, O&D, Numerical solutions, Numerical analysis, Multimodal transportation, Multimodal systems, Motor vehicle handling, Mode choice, Modal choice, Mathematical models, Mass transit, Logits, Logit models, Local transit, Hyperpaths, Highway users, Highway traffic control, Goals, Equilibrium assignment, Driving, Congestion pricing, Choice of transportation, Binomial distributions


In this paper, the authors extend the toll pricing framework previously developed for vehicular traffic networks to ones with the potential to include many modes of transportation such as walking, driving, and using public conveyance (e.g., buses, subways, and trains). To determine tolls, the authors construct a user equilibrium and system optimal model. In both models, they assume that users adopt strategies or hyperpaths to travel between each origin-destination pair and the demand between each pair is fixed. However, the choice between driving and using public transportation is determined by a binomial logit function. As in the case of vehicular traffic networks, the set of valid tolls can be obtained from the solution to the system problem and the equilibrium conditions for the user problem. Then, secondary objective functions similar to those for traffic networks can be used to select a toll vector for, e.g., implementation. The authors provide a numerical example to illustrate their approach.


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