Robert Cervero

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - vehicle, land use - planning, land use - urban design, land use - urban density, ridership - mode choice, ridership - commuting, ridership - demand, policy - environment, place - urban, mode - mass transit, mode - subway/metro


Variables, Utility theory, Urban planning, Urban development, Urban design, Travel time, Travel models (Travel demand), Travel demand, Transit, Town planning, SOVs, Socioeconomic factors, Socioeconomic aspects, Single occupant vehicles, Ridesharing, Public transit, Prices, Population density, Montgomery County (Maryland), Mode choice, Modal choice, Metropolitan area planning, Mass transit, Local transit, Land use, Journey time, Costs, Community planning, City planning, Choice of transportation, Case studies, Built environment


Many studies contend that compact, mixed-use, pedestrian friendly urban development can significantly influence mode choice. However, most of these studies have failed to adequately specify relationships for purposes of drawing inferences about the importance of built-environmental factors in shaping mode choice. This paper seeks to overcome some of the deficiencies of past mode-choice analyses through an expanded specification of mode-choice utility. Mode choice in Montgomery County, Maryland is considered around a normative model that weighs the influences of not only three core dimensions of build environments (density, diversity and design) but factors related to generalized cost and socioeconomic attributes of travelers as well. The marginal contributions of built-environment factors to a traditionally specified utility-based model of mode choice are measured. The analysis reveals intensities and mixtures of land use significantly influence decisions to drive alone, share a ride or use public transit, while the influences of urban design tend to be less significant. Elasticities that summarize relationships are also presented. Results indicate that land-use variables should be explicitly included in the utility expressions of mode choice models in urban settings. It is also important to include economic attributes such as travel time and price variables of competing modes in the specification of models that test the influences of land-use factors on travel demand.


Transportation Research Part D Home Page: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13619209