Constructing an Automated Bus Origin-Destination Matrix Using Farecard and Global Positioning System Data in São Paulo, Brazil

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

infrastructure - stop, infrastructure - vehicle, planning - surveys, mode - bus, mode - mass transit


Vehicle locating systems, Trip matrix, Trip matrices, Travel surveys, Transit, Stop (Public transportation), Sao Paulo (Brazil), Public transit, Origin and destination, O&D, Mass transit, Magnetic farecards, Local transit, Intracity bus transportation, GPS, Global Positioning System, Bus transit, Bus stops, AVL, Automatic vehicle location, Automatic location systems, Automatic fare collection, Automatic data collection systems


This paper outlines the process used to create an origin–destination matrix (ODM) in São Paulo, Brazil, with data available from automated data collection (ADC) systems. Prior work to develop ODMs using ADC systems is reviewed; however, the São Paulo case differs substantially from these. The approach used in this paper addresses a more complex bus network than has been approached before, uses a platform for integrating more data than were available in previous applications, and applies raw global positioning system–coordinate data to determine the location of buses for assigning an origin zone. Previously documented destination-inference techniques are used to assign destinations to each trip. Overall, the ODM development process uses three data sources: bus stops, automatic vehicle location data, and automated fare collection data. The results of the electronically generated ODM are analyzed and compared with results from prior household surveys. This analysis suggests that the larger sample size available from electronic farecard records enables more comprehensive, detailed ODMs than those generated from traditional household survey data.