Variation of Households' Car Ownership across Time: Application of a Panel Data Model

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - car


Travel behavior, Time series, Panel studies, Households, Germany, Automobile ownership


This study uses data from the German Mobility Panel (1996–2006) to examine variation of car ownership through time and across households. The panel data modeling results showed that there are variations of car ownership between households whereas changes in car ownership of a given household over time (within household variations) are insignificant. The influence of other factors such as the households’ socioeconomic background, the availability of public transportation and shopping/leisure facilities, perception on parking difficulties and satisfaction with existing public transportation services on the car owning characteristics of households is also presented and discussed. These findings could be used in forming transportation policy aimed at reducing car dependency.