Role of Bus-Based Park and Ride in the UK: A Temporal and Evaluative Review

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - surveys, policy - parking, economics - appraisal/evaluation, mode - bus, mode - park and ride, literature review - literature review


United Kingdom, Policy analysis, Park and ride, Multimodal transportation, Multimodal systems, Literature surveys, Literature reviews, Intracity bus transportation, Great Britain, Fringe parking, Evaluation, Bus transit


The number of bus-based Park and Ride (P&R) schemes in the UK has grown substantially over the past 40 years as a result of its encouragement by the Government as a tool to deal with increasing traffic congestion and traffic-related pollution. The aim of this article is to analyse the degree to which P&R is effective in the contemporary policy context. The authors identify phases of development of P&R since its emergence as a local solution to transport capacity constraints in historic towns. Policy goals are identified against which a review of literature is used to highlight its effectiveness. It is concluded that P&R may increase the distance travelled by its users due to low load factors on dedicated buses, public transport abstraction and trip generation, although it is highlighted that there are areas in which further research is required to clarify its impacts.