Enablers and Barriers to the Adoption of Alternatively Powered Buses

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

technology - alternative fuels, place - europe, mode - bus


Operational tests, NGV powered buses, Natural gas buses, Intracity bus transportation, Implementation, Europe, Electric buses, Diesel buses, Demonstration projects, CNG powered buses, Case studies, Bus transit, Alternative fuels, Alternate fuels


This paper seeks to identify enablers and barriers that stimulate or prevent the adoption of alternatively powered buses (APBs) in cities. The research method concentrates on an in-depth analysis of 21 European demonstration case studies of APBs. Considerable differences exist between these cities due to the different reference situation. The type of measurement and the situation in the demonstration cities influence the exact fuel consumption and emission reduction. Variables that could enable the adoption of all types of APBs are: (1) the compatibility with previously introduced ideas; (2) the already available necessary supporting infrastructure in the city; (3) a changed external appearance of the APB; (4) the acceptance of the APBs by passengers and bus drivers; and (5) political support in the city regarding the APBs. The main variables that could be determined as barriers are: the relative economic advantage (the outline of costs is higher than that of conventional buses); and the understanding of the APB for bus drivers and mechanics (because special training is needed for both groups).