Walking Behavior and Pedestrian Flow Characteristics for Different Types of Walking Facilities

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, infrastructure - station, land use - urban density, ridership - behaviour, mode - subway/metro, mode - pedestrian, mode - pedestrian


Walking speed, Walking, Traffic free zones, Subway stations, Speed-density relationships, Shanghai (China), Pedestrians, Pedestrian trafficways, Pedestrian traffic, Pedestrian precinct, Pedestrian flow, Pedestrian facilities, Pedestrian density, Pedestrian areas, Human behavior, Flow-density relationships, Behaviour, Behavior, Auto free zones


Based on a literature review of pedestrian traffic flow, this paper focuses on pedestrian flow characteristics for four different types of walking facilities in Shanghai, China, metro stations: one-way passageway, two-way passageway, ascending stairway, and descending stairway. Data on three pedestrian flow parameters, namely, pedestrian flow, density, and speed, were collected separately through recorded tapes. Pedestrian flow–density–speed relationships for each kind of walking facility were developed. Combined with the investigation of walking behavior, pedestrian flow characteristics on various walking facilities are compared with each other, particularly for the flow–density and speed–density relationships. The collected data and the established relationships could be used as a basis for modifying the design criteria of walking facilities in Chinese metro stations and could be helpful in improving research on the pedestrian flow theory.