An overview on vehicle scheduling models

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - scheduling, infrastructure - vehicle


The vehicle scheduling problem, arising in public transport bus companies, addresses the task of assigning buses to cover a given set of timetabled trips with consideration of practical requirements such as multiple depots and vehicle types as well as further extensions. An optimal schedule is characterized by minimal fleet size and/or minimal operational costs. Various publications were released as a result of extensive research in the last decades on this topic. Several modeling approaches as well as specialized solution strategies were presented for the problem and its extensions. This paper discusses the modeling approaches for different kinds of vehicle scheduling problems and gives an up-to-date and comprehensive overview on the basis of a general problem definition. Although we concentrate on the presentation of modeling approaches, also the basic ideas of solution approaches are given.