The bus bridging problem in metro operations: conceptual framework, models and algorithms

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - route design, planning - route design, ridership - commuting, mode - bus, mode - subway/metro


Metro network disruption, Bus bridging, Conceptual framework, Bus route design, Decision support system


Metro networks provide efficient transportation services to large numbers of travelers in urban areas around the World; any unexpected operational disruption can lead to rapid degradation of the provided level of service by a city’s public transportation system. In such instances, quick and efficient substitution of services is necessary for accommodating metro passengers including the widely used practice of “bridging” metro stations using bus services. Despite its widespread application, bus bridging is largely done ad-hoc and not as part of an integrated optimization procedure. In this paper we propose a methodological framework for planning and designing an efficient bus bridging network. Furthermore, we offer a set of structured steps and optimization models and algorithms for handling bus bridging problems.