Case Studies in Environmental Justice and Public Transit Title VI Reporting


Beverly G. Ward

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - impacts, land use - planning, policy - equity, policy - environment


Case studies, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Act Title VI, Environmental justice, Equity (Justice), Ethnic groups, Guidelines, Impacts, Investments, Land use planning, Low income groups, Minorities, Public transit, Race, Recommendations, Transportation planning


The topic of environmental justice was identified as one of 11 priority areas for research by the Research and Technology Committee of the American Public Transportation Association (APTA). The objectives of the study were to identify state and national examples of environmental justice solutions and Title VI reporting and implementation that demonstrate commitment to equitable distribution of public transportation resources. Five case studies are provided. One focuses on a racial group, American Indian and Alaska Native, the other four on environmental justice issues related to different geographic areas in the U.S. The findings suggest that ethnic and racial minorities and persons living in low-income households tend to be concentrated in central cities, away from jobs, and sometimes goods and services. Recommendations are provided based on the guidelines provided in the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Circular 4702.1, Title VI Program Guidelines for Urban Mass Transportation Administration Recipients. Public transportation agencies are encouraged to use these guidelines and subsequent reports as planning tools to identify potential impacts of proposed actions to low-income and minority communities. It is anticipated that a better understanding of impacts and the participation of minority and low-income communities in identifying impacts and solutions will lead to better service planning and delivery.