The growth engine: Interconnecting transport performance, the economy and the environment

Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Subject Area

ridership - growth, policy - environment


public transport, timetables, passengers’ level of service


Public-transport (PT) timetables and their compliance mirror the quality of the PT service provided. Hence, vehicles departing too early or ahead of schedule need to be restrained, just as those leaving late must be scheduled or rescheduled to be on time. Because of existing problems of PT reliability, there is need to improve the correspondence of vehicle-departure times with passenger demand instead of assuming that passengers will adjust themselves to given timetables (excluding situations characterized by short headways). With the advance in technology of passenger information systems, the importance of even and clock headways is reduced. This allows for the possibility to create more efficient schedules from both the passenger and operator perspectives. This work contains a methodology framework with developed algorithms for the derivation of vehicle departure times (timetable) with either even headways or even average loads and with a smoothing consideration in the transition between time periods. The procedures presented are accompanied by examples and clear graphical explanations. It is emphasized that the PT timetable is one of the predominant bridges between the operator (and community) and the passengers, and thus its improvement will increase the level-ofservice for the PT passengers.